What Are the Different Types of IQ Tests?
What Is an IQ Test?
An IQ Test is designed to demonstrate the intellectual strengths and potential of each individual that takes it. The test also showcases areas of weakness.
It measures a collection of cognitive abilities and scores an individual to measure their intellect.
IQ tests are one of the most common psychological tests, which is why you might have heard of them more than others.
There are a variety of tests around, and many of them are standardized and have scoring systems that compare an individual's performance against the averages from their age group.
However, you should also note that different IQ tests have different scoring systems. If you take numerous tests, there are ways you can merge the data.
Can an IQ Test Increase Your Intelligence?
Before you take an IQ test, you might want to practice. There is an array of different practice tests that will allow you to explore the nature of questions you might encounter when you take the actual IQ test.
Therefore, can an IQ test increase your intelligence?
Each test will monitor your weaknesses and your strengths; therefore, it will allow you to identify the areas you are not so strong in and build on your strengths.
For example: you have taken a practice IQ test, and the results show that your weakness is math.
You then research or try to develop your skills in this area before you take a full IQ test; therefore, you have increased your knowledge with the assistance of an IQ test.
What Are the Different Types of IQ Tests?
There are various intelligence tests, and the types of questions they include can vary.
For example, some tests are designed specifically for children, while others can be for adults looking to test their intelligence.
Each test can have several different uses, such as:
- Assess educational placements based on the results and diagnose any signs of intellectual disability or giftedness
- Evaluate potential job candidates from the employer’s side
- Test cognitive function, memory, attention and speed.
Here are a few of the most well-known IQ tests around and who they are best suited to.
One of the most popular IQ tests to date, the Stanford-Binet intelligence test is primarily administered to children and looks at five cognitive ability factors, such as:
- Fluid reasoning
- Visual-spatial processing
- Quantitative reasoning
- Working memory
The test was developed by Lewis Terman at Stanford University in 1916, based on the research of Alfred Binet, a French psychologist.
The test has undergone several revisions to ensure it is up to date. Official iterations of the test can be administered by psychologists and other professionals.
It is recommended to take the test in a quiet location so as not to be disturbed.
The length of the test is from 45 minutes to three hours. The time it takes depends on the speed of the individual who is taking the test.
For example, older children will have to take more subtests, which will increase the total time of the test.
Scoring for the Stanford-Binet test is calculated from all five factors of the cognitive scale mentioned above and the age of the individual taking the test.
100 is the average score for the rest and is cross-referenced against a few score ranges you can find before you take the test.
Another popular IQ test is the Raven’s Progressive Matrices, also known as Raven’s SPM.
Something that differentiates this test from others is that the user receives a single raw score rather than various marks based on other subtests.
There is also no time limit with Raven’s test, and it can be taken by young children as well as adults.
It is a multiple-choice test developed in 1936, and it considers the following objectives:
- Fluid intelligence
- Abstract reasoning
- Educational ability
As with other tests, it is usually administered by educational professionals and psychologists.
It is recommended you take the test in a quiet location without any distractions.
3. Woodcock-Johnson Cognitive Ability Test
The Woodcock-Johnson test is one of the most well-known IQ tests today that can be administered to children as young as two years old and up to people in their 90s.
It was developed in 1977, and its most recent update was in 2014.
It focuses on an educational diagnosis of children and is used by professionals to measure a range of cognitive functions, such as:
- Academic achievement
- Scholastic aptitude
- Oral language
- Cognitive ability
The test is multiple choice that again can be administered by psychologists, testing centers and schools.
It includes Extended Battery and Standard Battery tests which assesses GIA (General Intellectual ability) and Brief Intellectual Ability.
The Woodcock-Johnson test has several scores, which are generated on completing the exams.
The outcome will depend on comparisons with people within the same age group, levels of development and proficiency scores.
The Wechsler IQ test has been around since 1939 and was developed by Dr. David Wechsler.
The primary and most common use of this test is to discover the cognitive performance and intelligence of an adult individual.
It is also helpful in identifying intellectual disabilities in adults and another iteration for children.
The scores range from 0–160. With some higher-intellectual adults being scored 130 or higher.
The main functions the test monitors for adults are:
- Processing speed index
- Perceptual reasoning index
- Working memory index
- Verbal comprehension index
Over the years the test has been adapted and revised to be more culturally fair, which makes it a popular IQ test for use around the world.
Developed by Colin D. Elliott, the Differential Ability Scales are a range of tests that have been created to determine ability and skill levels in children and adults.
They are administered to determine the individuals' strengths, weaknesses and cognitive abilities.
One of the primary uses for this examination is for professionals to diagnose and classify individuals, and these tests consist of 20 subsets (separated into cognitive targets and achievement). Scores are subject to each of these targets.
The difference between the Differential Ability Scales and some of the other IQ tests is that it is more about learning styles than simple testing abilities.
The below are examples of some of the subtests you will see during this test:
- Object recall
- Digit recall
- Picture similarities
These tests are effective in predicting future educational achievement, which is useful for instructors and parents too.
It also helps educational professionals to determine the way children of the same age pick up skills and study within more clinical surroundings.
The Differential Ability Scales are considered an exceptionally reliable tool for testing in a more psychological sense and are normally administered by psychologists.
6. Peabody Individual Achievement Test
The Peabody Individual Achievement Test, otherwise known as PIAT, focuses on measuring pronunciation, measures, word recognition and reading.
It can be administered to both children and adults between the ages of five to 22, and the test can be translated into English and Spanish.
The test has become a frequent part of many educational batteries and evaluates achievement within individuals. It is also useful in determining strengths and weaknesses in the taker.
It is primarily administered by counselors, learning professionals and clinical psychologists for the following:
- Evaluate learning disabilities
- Support planning
- Evaluate specialized programs
There are many different subsets of this specific test which the individual will be scored on, such as: math, reading recognition, spelling, general information and reading comprehension.
7. Cattell Culture Fair
The CFIT (Cattell Culture Fair Intelligence Test) is an exam designed not to be influenced by cultural elements like other IQ tests.
It was created in the early 1930s by Raymond B. Cattell, with the mindset of designing a set of tests.
Currently, in its third edition, this test is divided into two sections:
- One – fluid intelligence: the biological ability to problem solve and gain knowledge
- Two – crystallized intelligence: verbal memory and comprehension
The Cattell Culture Fair is used mainly for the following:
- Picking the right students for advanced educational programs
- Helping to identify learning disabilities
- Determining success in secondary education
- Giving guidance for vocational paths
You can take the test on your own or as part of a group setting, and it can be administered by professionals based on age and abilities. You might not be tested on each scale, and three intelligence scales can be measured.
- Scale I – For individuals aged between four to eight and adults with mental handicaps
- Scale II – For older children between the ages of four to eight as well as adults
- Scale III – For individuals ages 14 and above as well as adults with advanced intelligence
How do You Compare IQ Test Results?
With all the different IQ tests out there, it is no surprise that they all have their own scoring systems.
So, how is IQ measured if all the tests measure different things?
A comparison between tests can be done by converting the scores into percentiles, which is where an individual’s score falls compared to the rest of the population by percentage.
A percentile score of 98% means that you are in the top 2%, and a percentile score of 97% puts you in the top 3%.
There are various ways you can compare your scores; therefore, it is recommended you research or discuss this with a professional.
Can You Practice IQ Tests to Improve Your Results?
Many different factors could potentially improve your results. For example, genes, good parenting, home life and other environmental matters.
However, there are things you can do to help you improve your results if you are planning on taking an IQ test for a new job.
Here are a few recommendations of strategies you can use that may improve your score:
Practice – Practice makes perfect, and with aptitude tests, this is usually the case. If you know you are due to take an examination, there are practice tests you can take online to prepare you for the exam, the content, time limit and the format of the test.
Continued learning and education – If you have already taken a test and it identified a particular weakness, then you can use this as a basis to try courses or continued learning to help you improve your score within these areas.
Learning a second language – A great way to test yourself and get your mind working is to potentially learn a second language. This will exercise your cognitive abilities and expand your mind.
Learning to play an instrument – As with learning a new language, learning to play an instrument can relax your mind and improve hand-eye coordination. It will also assist with broadening your horizons and exploring new skills.
Reading frequently – Reading books can expand the mind and subconsciously teach you skills and knowledge you might not realize you are learning while improving your language, reading and visual skills.
Memory training – There are many ways you can train the brain when it comes to memory, you can even find these types of quizzes on a gaming device or online.
Visuospatial reasoning training (spatial ability) and executive control training (high-level cognitive training) – As questions like this might occur in the test, it is a good idea to investigate both types of training when taking an IQ test.
There are many ways to prepare if you are taking an IQ test, whether for fun, general information, a job interview or to diagnose.
Researching the particular test you are going to take will ensure it hits the criteria you are after and will help you prepare.
Use our tips to help improve your IQ before or after your test.